Cholera is a serious watery diarrhea infectious disease that may lead to malnutrition, even death if it is not treated. This comes from food consumption or from drinking water that has been infected by a Vibrio cholera bacterium.
In the 1800s, cholera was widespread in the United States due to the elimination of contaminated water of modern sewage and wastewater treatment systems. Every year in the U.S. there are only 10 cases of cholera and all of these are imported overseas. Cholera outbreaks in the United States have seldom been caused by tainted fish. In other parts of the world, cholera outbreaks tend to be a serious problem. The World Health Organization estimates at least 150,000 cases annually.
To areas with poor sanitation, pollution, war, and poverty, the disease is most severe. Parts of Africa, Southern Asia, and Latin America are common places. If you travel to these areas, you and your family may be protected by knowing the following cholera facts.
What is the antidote against cholera?
Cholera is a bacterial infection that can cause serious diarrhea that threatens life. Cholera is caused by contact with polluted water or food by Vibrio cholera bacteria-infected feces.
In areas that have not been properly treated to remove pollutants, cholera is common. Cholera quickly spreads in areas where hygiene and sanitation are poor. Cholera outbreaks frequently occur in areas of overcrowding, in the case of refugees who flee politically or naturally or in other circumstances in which safe drinking water is scarce and sufficient sanitary facilities are inaccessible.
Cholera is common with modern water and wastewater treatment systems in the U.S. and other developed countries. In areas where cholera often occurs, such as Africa, South East Asia, or Haiti, it is more common to become infected during international journeys.
Food contaminated as a result of a person’s handling of cholera may also be infected. The majority of cholera cases in the US are caused by the consumption of seafood brought by a visitor from another country. Raw or under-cooked seafood, particularly shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico, could also be a source of cholera.
Many people with cholera do not show any symptoms, but sudden diarrhea is the major symptom, which may start within 2 to 5 days of infection. Diarrhea, which can lead to malnutrition and shock, can cause the organism rapidly to lose its essential fluids and electrolytes. If cholera is not quickly treated, death can happen within hours. Cholera bacteria can still be present in the stools for up to 2 weeks, even without symptoms.
Cholera can easily be treated or prevented with certain precautions. A cholera vaccine is used in people planning to visit places where cholera is common to avoid this disease.
It is exposed to a small dose that results in the body developing resistance to the infection, allowing the body to produce living cholera bacteria. Active disease that has developed in the body is not treated by this vaccine.
The cholera vaccine is used for people between the ages of 18 and 64 years.
Cholera vaccine, like any vaccine, cannot protect everyone from infection.
What should I have before receiving the cholera vaccine with my health care provider?
If you had an allergic reaction to a prior cholera vaccine, you should not receive this vaccine.
If you have a weak immuno-system (caused by infection or by the use of other medicines;
- You are malnourished; or
- anyone in your family has a weak immune system, tell your physician to ensure your cholera vaccine is free.
As the cholera vaccine is not absorbed into the bloodstream, unborn babies will not be dangerous if they are immunized. But do not get a vaccine for cholera 7 days prior to your expected date of delivery.
You may be registered in a maternity registry if you are pregnant. This will monitor the outcomes of childbirth and determine any cholera vaccine effects on the baby.
Because cholera is not absorbed into the bloodstream, a breastfeeding baby should not be dangerous.
No person under the age of 18 or older than 65 shall be permitted to use the cholera vaccine.
How is vaccination against cholera administered?
A single dose of cholera vaccine is normally delivered by mouth. The vaccine is a paste blended before taking with ice. In a hospital or another clinical facility, you will obtain this combination.
It should be taken in a vacuum at least 1 hour prior to or 1 hour after ingestion.
Follow the instructions of your doctor to receive a booster dose if necessary.
For this vaccine to be successful, the timing is very critical. The vaccine must be given at least 10 days before heading to a cholera region to provide the best protection against cholera.
Because the vaccine is live, small quantities of live cholera bacteria can invade your stool for 7 days or more after you take the dose. During this time, you have the chance to pass on the bacteria to a non-vaccinated human. Nobody with a weak immune system may come into contact.
Wash your hands regularly, particularly when using the toilet or handling food, for a minimum of 2 weeks after receiving the cholera vaccine.
Avoid drinking water or soft drinks not made from sealed bottles or cans when traveling in a cholera area. Remove ice cubes not made of water filtered. Use bottled water when you brush your teeth and prepare and serve food or cleaning areas.
If no water is available for bottling, follow the guidelines set out for disinfecting water from a tap or other source by the World Health Organization or by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
When I miss a dose, what happens?
Since the cholera vaccine will be administered as a single vaccine, a dosing schedule is impossible.
What if I overdose?
Since a healthcare professional administrates this drug in a medical environment, an overdose is impossible.
How should I prevent the cholera vaccine after I have received it?
No food or drinks for a minimum of 1 hour or 1 hour after taking this vaccine.
Live cholera bacteria will pass into your feces (bowel movements) for at least 7 days after receiving this vaccine. Prevent allowing fluids in your body to touch your hands or other surfaces during that period. Nobody who has a weak immune system must come into contact.
How can the cholera vaccine have any side effects?
Seek medical assistance in an emergency when there are symptoms of an allergic reaction: hives; trouble breathing; swelling of your head, lips, tongue, and chest.
Common side effects may include:
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
- stomach pain, lack of appetite;
- headaches; or
- feeling tired.
This is not a full list of side effects and other side effects can occur. For medical advice on side effects, call your doctor. The US Department of Health and Human Services may report side effects of the vaccine at 1-800-822-7967.
What other medicines will influence the vaccine against cholera?
Tell your doctor about all drugs, in particular
- antibiotics; and
you have used in the last 14 days.
Include the medicine to treat psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis or other autoimmune disorders. Or tell a doctor if you have recently received drugs or therapies for weakening the immune system, including:
- inhaled, injectable or
- steroid medicine.
You may not be able to receive a cholera vaccine or may have to wait until other procedures are completed if you use any of these drugs.
This list is not full. Certain medicines, such as prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins and herbal products, can interact with cholera vaccines. This medication guide lists not all possible interactions.
Cholera Vibrio, the cholera-causing bacterium, is usually found in food or water that is contaminated with feces from an infected person. Common sources include
Municipal Water Furnace
Municipal Water Ice
Street vendor foods and drinks
Caught in sewage-polluted waters, raw or uncooked seafood and fish caught in contaminated food or water, bacteria release a toxin into the intestine that leads to severe diarrhea.
It is possibly not only casual contact with an infected person that will catch cholera.
Cholera The symptoms of cholera may start a few hours or five days after infection.
Symptoms are often moderate. But it’s very bad sometimes. Around one out of 20 infected persons have extreme watery diarrhea and vomiting that can lead to dehydration rapidly. While many infected people can have limited or no symptoms, they can still contribute to the infection spread.
Signs and dehydrating signs include:
- Fast heart rate
- loss of skin elasticity
- Low blood pressure
- Muscular cramps
Cholera Treatment and Prevention
Although there is a cholera vaccine, it is not usually approved by CDC and by the World Health Organization since up to half of the people who obtain it cannot contain it, and only takes a couple of months. Nevertheless, it is only with boiled water, disinfected water, and bottled water that you and your friends can cover themselves and yourselves.
- Cooking food and drink
- Clean your faces and hands·
- Bleach dishes or utensils you use to cook and prepare food
- Wash fruit and vegetables To clean your own liquid, then boil it for a minute (or 3 minutes above sea level) and turn it on to water for a minute (or 3 minutes at higher elevations)
- Fresh and badly prepared meat and shellfish.
- Tropical fish that might be infected When you develop serious watery diarrhea and vomiting,
particularly after you are eating raw shellfish and going into a nation in which cholera is endemic. Seek medical help meet basic food, including:
Unpasteurized milk or unpasteurized goods.
You should also stop unpasteurized milk or dairy products.
The diagnosis of cholera is small, but since dehydration can happen quickly, the treatment of cholera is necessary instantly.
The core of cholera therapy is hydration. Treatment consists of oral and intravenous liquid supplements, based on the severity of diarrhea. The medical treatment in mild cases does not include antibiotics that kill bacteria. However, they can cut diarrhea by half and also decrease bacterial excretion so that the disease is prevented.
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