Birth defect in child
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A health issue or an abnormal physical alter that is known as a birth defect when a child is born. Birth defects, where the child looks and acts like any other child, can be very gentle. Or there may be more serious birth defects. There are some birth defects that cause one issue. Others in more than one body system or organ cause issues. Deficiencies in birth can lead to lifelong disability and disease. Some serious birth defects may threaten life. Only a few weeks or months can a child live. Or a kid may die when he or she is a teenager at a young age.


It is impossible to cure some birth defects. These include flaws that cause issues with teaching or thinking. But surgery can treat many physical birth defects. Many birth defects, including cleft lip or cleft palate, and some heart defects can be repaired.

Possible birth defect in child birth

Possible complications differ commonly depending on the type of birth defect. One or more of the following may be included:

  • Learning issues
  • Infections of the middle ear
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Severe diseases
  • Heart issues
  • Intestinal issues
  • Hearing issues
  • Thyroid issues
  • Chronic pulmonary illness
  • Autism
  • Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Anxiety disorder.

Key points about birth defects in children

  • A birth defect is a health problem or abnormal physical change that is present when a baby is born. Birth defects range from very mild to life-threatening and limiting.
  • Birth defects can happen for many reasons. But often the cause isn’t known.
  • Many birth defects can be diagnosed before birth with tests. Your healthcare provider will talk with you about testing.
  • The risk for birth defects varies by type of defect, family health history, age of parents, and other factors. Your provider can tell you more about your risk of having a child with a birth defect.
  • There is no cure for birth defects. But children can often be treated to help reduce problems.
  • Researchers are trying to find ways to prevent many birth defects. Not all birth defects can be prevented. Taking steps to be healthy before and during pregnancy is important.

Which children are at risk for birth defects?

Birth defects are found throughout the world in babies, in families from all countries and backgrounds. There is a chance that the baby will have a birth defect whenever a woman becomes pregnant. Most children have a good birth. In fact, there is a major birth defect in almost 1 in every 33 babies born in the U.S. Birth defect risk varies by type of defect, history of family health, parent age, and other factors. Your health care provider can inform you more about the danger of birth defects for your child.

The symptoms of birth defects in a child

Symptoms are highly variable. They rely on the birth defect form. Symptoms for each kid can be a little distinct. They may include stuff such as:

  • Slow development
  • Frequent diseases
  • Joint issues
  • Not normal shape of the head, eyes, ears, mouth, or face
  • Unfulfilled spinal cord (spina bifida)
  • Kidney issues
  • Not normal shape of the fingers, feet, or limbs
  • Trouble feeding
  • Cardiac issues
  • Intestinal issues

The symptoms of birth defects may seem like other circumstances of health. Have your kid look for a diagnosis with his or her health care provider.

Birth defects causes in baby?

The first question frequently asked by the parents when a baby is born with a birth defect is “How did this happen?” Sometimes this question cannot be answered. For parents, this can be very upsetting. Wanting to understand why your child has a health problem is normal.

For many reasons, birth defects can occur. They can occur when she is pregnant due to the exposure of the mother to certain stuff. Or they may occur due to certain genes or gene (mutations) modifications. It could be a mixture of these stuff as well. But the cause is often unknown.

The various causes of birth defects are:                                                

Inheritance and gene defects

Inheritance implies a characteristic that one of your parents passed on to you. Eye color and type of blood are examples of ordinary hereditary characteristics. Genes are what your characteristics give you. Sometimes a kid may inherit not only those genes for ordinary features like eye color, but also genes that cause a birth defect.

Problems with chromosomes.

Chromosomes are each cell’s core (nucleus) stick-like structures. Chromosomes contain genes of your own. Changes in chromosomes can cause issues with health.

Inheritance multifactorial.

This implies that the causing of a birth defect involves many stuff. These things are often genetic as well as environmental.


A teratogen is a substance that causes birth defects. During her pregnancy, Mother may be subject to something in the environment. It could be a prescribed medicine, an illegal drug, alcohol use, a toxic chemical, or a disease of a mother. Any of these might make the born kid more likely to have a birth defect.


How are birth defects diagnosed in a child?

Tests can be used to diagnose many birth defects before birth. Chromosome issues like Down syndrome can be diagnosed in the amniotic fluid or from the placenta before birth. Or look at the baby’s DNA in the blood of the mother (non-invasive prenatal screening) to find them. These are very precise tests.

During pregnancy, fetal ultrasound may also indicate the likelihood of certain birth defects. But ultrasound is not precise to 100 percent. Some children with birth defects may look like those without issues on ultrasound.


The following tests can be performed while a child is in the uterus.

Human gonadotropin chorionic(HCG).

This is a hormone produced in the placenta by some cells. High concentrations of hCG may imply Down syndrome for the child. This condition is a problem with a chromosome. It causes problems with learning and physical changes.

Nuchal translucency screening

Often performed late in the first trimester, this is an ultrasound test. Thickening the region behind the baby’s neck may result in enhanced danger of Down syndrome or other issues with chromosome.


Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

This blood test measures AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) protein levels. This protein is issued from the liver of the baby and is discovered in the blood of the mother. AFP is sometimes referred to as AFP (MSAFP) maternal serum. AFP screening may be one component of a screening of two, three, or four parts. It is often called a screen with multiple markers. The remaining sections are:


This is a placenta-made hormone, and the liver and adrenal glands of the baby. Low levels can mean Down syndrome for the baby.


This is a placenta-made hormone. Abnormal concentrations can result in enhanced Down syndrome danger.


This test requires a tiny sample of the baby’s surrounding amniotic fluid. The sample is used to diagnose issues with chromosomes and to open flaws in the neural tube such as spina bifida. Other genetic defects and illnesses can be tested. This depends on the history of the family and the laboratory test at the moment of the test. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends females at greater danger for chromosome issues with amniocentesis about 15 to 20 weeks of pregnancy. These include females over 35 years of age at delivery. It also involves females who have had an abnormal blood test, which implies that they are at greater danger for a chromosome issue or neural tube deficiency such as spina bifida. In other case amniocentesis can be done as early as 15 weeks.


This is a test that creates a picture of the internal organs using sound waves. Ultrasound can detect some physical birth defects.

Noninvasive prenatal screening

This is a test looking at the blood of the mother. The laboratory is looking for genetic material called placenta-derived DNA. This DNA is identical to the DNA of the baby. The laboratory is looking for issues with chromosomes like trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and trisomy 21.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

This experiment requires a sample of placenta tissue. This tissue has the same baby’s genetic material. Chromosome issues and some other genetic issues can be screened. This depends on the history of the family and the laboratory test now of the test. CVS does not provide data on neural tube defects such as spina bifida as opposed to amniocentesis. Women who have the CVS test also need a 16 to 18 weeks pregnancy follow-up blood test. This blood test will screen for defects in the neural tube.


Birth defects are sometimes only diagnosed after birth.

 A health care provider can diagnose a child with a physical examination. A blood sample may also be taken by the health care provider. To discover chromosome issues, this is looked at in a laboratory. This is essential so that in future pregnancies the parents understand the danger of this birth defect.

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Birth defects Treatment?

Birth defects are not cured. But to assist decrease issues, kids can often be handled. Treatment will rely on the symptoms, age, and overall health of your child. It will also rely on the severity of the situation. Children can benefit from surgery, medications, physical or occupational therapy, intervention in education, and other forms of assistance. Discuss the risks, advantages, and possible side effects of all medicines with your child’s health care suppliers.

How can I prevent my kid avoid birth defects?

Researchers seek methods to avoid many birth defects. All birth defects can be prevented.

There are only a few methods to assist avoid certain flaws that are presently recognized. It is essential to take measures in order to be safe before and during pregnancy. Vaccinating against certain diseases like rubella can prevent birth defects triggered by the infection. Not drinking alcohol during pregnancy can prevent alcohol-related birth defects. Taking a prenatal vitamin that contains folic acid can assist avoid flaws in the neural tube such as spina bifida.


Prevent birth defect in baby?

If your baby is born with a birth defect, you can do some things to care for yourself and your baby:

  • Keep all appointments with the health care provider for your baby.
  • Discuss other suppliers that will be included in your child’s care with your health care supplier. A multidisciplinary team can take care of your kid. This group may include counselors, social workers, clergy, counselors in genetics, dietitians, physical therapists, and speech therapists. The care team of your child will rely about your child.
  • If you are worried about the symptoms of your baby, call your supplier.
  • To comprehend your danger, think about getting genetic testing and counseling. Tell others of your baby’s condition. Work to develop a therapy plan with your child’s health care provider. Ask for support from local community services. This may include your community of faith and birth defect-specific organizations like the March of Dimes.

DO’S during the birth defect

A birth defect is an abnormal health issue or physical alter that occurs when a child is born. Deficiencies in birth range from mild to life-threatening and restricting.

Birth defects may occur for a number of reasons. But the cause is often unknown.

  • Tests can be used to diagnose many birth flaws before birth. Your health care provider will discuss testing with you.
  • Birth defect risk varies by type of defect, family history, parent age, and other variables. Your supplier will be able to inform you more about your danger of a birth defect kid.
  • Birth defects are not cured. But to assist decrease issues, kids can often be handled. Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if your kid is not taking the medication or is undergoing a test or operation.
  • Write down the date, time and purpose of the visit if your kid has a follow-up appointment.
  • Know how after office hours you can contact your child’s supplier. If your kid gets sick and you have questions or need guidance, this is essential.

Published by Neha

Having question on Pregnancy,Birth and Babies Health ? Ask us. Improving the quality of maternal, newborn and child health care meetings on accountability and quality of care learning. Maternal health is women’s health during pregnancy, infancy, and postpartum. It covers the dimensions of health care in family planning, preconception, prenatal and postnatal care to guarantee a favorable and satisfying experience

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