JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS is a brain infection caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis (JE). While the bulk of illnesses produce few or no signs, often brain inflammation exists. In these cases, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, anxiety or epilepsy can include signs.
Moscow-borne viral infection is Japanese encephalitis. In Asia, this is the major cause of viral encephalitis. Persons can get a mosquito with the infection, which bites the virus.
In the flavivirus family, Japanese encephalitis is a disease. It is carried on by the Culex mosquito.
Horses and pigs, as well as people, are also infected by the virus. Encephalitis and pig pregnancy may occur in pigs.
A host is a virus source and it is passed on by the vector. JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS is possibly the normal host for wild birds and the hosts are mosquitoes. A vector is not diseasing but transmits it.
The pet could become a carrier of the disease if mosquitoes bite an insect. When other mosquitoes prey on these newly acquired creatures, the infection is brought in and spread by other species.
In rural areas where the disease is widespread, citizens are at greatest risk. In towns and cities, Japanese encephalitis is normal.
It is more common in children because people usually are resistant when they get older in places where the disease is widespread.
- A flavivirus similar to Dengue, measles, and Western Nile viruses is the Japanese encephalitis virus which spreads by mosquitos.
- JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS in many countries in Asia, with a reported 68 000 medical cases worldwide, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis.
- Although symptomatic Japanese encephalitis (JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS) is rare, cases of fatality can be as high as 30% for those who have encephalitis. In 30–0% of people with encephalitis permanent neurological or psychiatric sequelae may occur.
- In 24 Southeast Asian and Western Pacific WHO nations, JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS transmission is widespread, and more than 3 billion people are at risk of disease.
- No treatment of the disease is available. The treatment was intended to relieve severe clinical signs and enable the client to resolve the illness.
- Safe and efficient JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS preventive vaccinations are safe. In all fields where JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS is recognized as a public health problem, WHO recommends the integration of JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS vaccination within national immunization schedules.
Where is it more frequently?
In Southeast Asia, Japanese encephalitis is most common.
In the past, China, India, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand had outbreaks but were primarily vaccinated to contain the infection. Occasional epidemics continue to occur in Vietnam, Burma, Myanmar, India, Nepal, and Malaysia.
Northern Australia has reported outbreaks, but in southern Australia the health authorities find it to be a low-risk infection.
In people traveling in places where the disease is active, the United States saw a couple of reports of Japanese encephalitis.
Generally, the risk of Japanese encephalitis is extremely low while in Asia. The season, location, length of stay and the activities a traveler would do in Asia are however significant.
The risk of transmission is greatest in the season, but it ranges from place to place:
- The transmission is strongest in temperate areas during the summer and early autumn, between May and September generally.
- The season relies on the precipitation and bird migration cycles in subtropical and tropical regions.
- Transmission may occur at any time of the year in certain tropical areas, depending partly on agricultural practices.
- In areas where rice is grown, it is more popular.
The most important cause for viral encephalitis in Asia is Japanese encephalitis virus JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS. It is a flavivirus that is transported by mosquitoes and is of the same genus as dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses.
In Japan in 1871, the first case of Japanese viral encephalitis (JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS) had been reported.
The average occurrence of infectious illness ranges from < 1 to > 10 per 100 000 population in all tropical countries or beyond in outbreaks. A study of the literature reports that there are almost 68 000 medical occurrences of JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS worldwide.
With about 13 600 to 20 400 fatalities each year. JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS affects mainly children. Most adults are naturally immune to infection in endemic countries and can affect persons of any age.
JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS symptoms
The most frequent JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS infections are moderate or without any obvious symptoms (fever and headache), but around 1 out of 250 infections lead to serious health conditions. It takes from 4 to 14 days of incubation. For adolescents, the primary signs may be stomach discomfort or nausea. High fever, headache, neck tightness, disorientation, coma, seizures, spastic paralysis, and ultimate death characterize serious diseases. For hospitals with infection signs, the fatality rate can be as high as 30%.
Outstanding mental, emotional and physical sequelae such as vomiting, frequent hallucinations or unable to communicate are 20-30 million victims.
JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS Transmission
24 countries have JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS transmission risk in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific zones, including more than 3 billion citizens.
Japanese encephalitis VIRUS is transferred to humans through bites from infected Culex species mosquitoes (especially Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Persons who have been bitten do not grow enough viremia to cause mosquito feeding. The disease occurs in a process of propagation between mosquitoes, pigs and/or birds of water (enzootic period).
Within rural and suburban areas, people live near to these host vertebrates, the disease often happens.
JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS is primarily spread during the warm season in most temperate areas of Asia while major epidemics arise. Transmission in the tropics and the subtropics can occur throughout the year but is often intensified in pre-harvest and rainy seasons in rice-growing regions.
JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS Diagnosis
Diagnosis People residing in or commuting to an encephalitis or JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS region are deemed a confirmed JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS event. Day of encephalitis to prove a JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS infection and exclude any triggers of encephalitis, a laboratory test is required. Monitoring of CSF is recommended to minimize false-positive levels of prior diseases and vaccine Virus control is primarily syndromic of acute encephalitis syndrome. WHO suggests the Checking of JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS-specify IgM antibodies in a single sample of cerebrospinal fluid or serum. Confirmatory laboratory testing is regularly conducted at specific sentinel locations and laboratory-based surveillance attempts are made. For countries which effectively control JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS by vaccination, case-based surveillance is provided.
JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS Treatment
Treatment No antiviral therapy is required to JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS patients. Therapy is effective for the treatment of pain and clinical recovery.
JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS Control and Prevention
Safe and effective JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS vaccinations for disease prevention are available. In all countries where the disease is considered to be a concern for public health, WHO advises that JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS prevention and control efforts be high and that the monitoring and reporting systems be improved. Although the number of cases of JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS-confirmed is small, vaccination should be recommended where the JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS virus transmitting condition is sufficient. There is little proof that treatments other than medical vaccines reduce the cost of JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS infection. Human vaccination should, therefore, be given priority over pig vaccination and mosquito control.
Currently, there are four main types of JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS vaccines used:
- inactivated mouse-derived vaccines,
- live-attenuated and recombinant live (chimeric) vaccines.
The SA14-14-2 vaccine, developed live attenuated in China, has been the main vaccine in susceptible countries in recent years and was prequalified by WHO in October 2013. Both approved and pre-qualified are the cell-based inactivated vaccines and the live recombinant vaccine-derived on the strain of yellow fever. A funding mechanism for JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS vaccine programs in the qualifying countries was established at Gavi in November 2013.
Both travelers in Japanese encephalitis-endemic areas must take precautions to avoid mosquito bites in order to reduce the threat of JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS. The use of mosquito repellents, long-sleeved clothing, spirals and vaporizers is part of personal preventive measures. Vaccinations are recommended before travel for those who spend a great deal of time in JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS endemic areas.
JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS Disease outbreaks
Outbreaks of Disease Major JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS outbreaks happen each 2-15 years. During the rainy season, during which vector populations increase, JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS transmission intensifies. However, the increase in JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS transmission due to large floods or tsunamis has not yet been shown. JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS expansion to new areas has been related to agriculture and intense rice production, which have provided the aid of irrigation programmers.
Providing international JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS monitoring guidelines, including the use of vaccines. In all regions where the disease is a recognized priority of public health and promotes implementation, WHO recommends JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS immunizations.
Technical support for JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS monitoring, implementation of vaccinations and JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS large-scale vaccination programs, JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS feasibility analysis, and programmatic effects.
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